Tag Archives: nonfiction

OOPS! Common Goofs Beyond Its/It’s and Their/There/They’re

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Many editor/writer types like myself frequently kvetch about how often people mistake its for it’s; their, there, and they’re; your and you’re; than and then; to, too, and two; and so on and so forth. But there are all sorts of homonyms, homophones, heteronyms, and homographs that litter manuscripts (and tweets and posts and billboards and cereal boxes …) and cause all sorts of problems, such as clarity of meaning.

Some of these mistakes stem not from a misunderstanding of the rules of spelling and grammar; rather, they can be the result of typing too quickly, writing in haste, disinterest in proofing your own work, etc. etc. (I’m being charitable here, giving abusers some leeway.) Some of the mistakes stem from laziness. Some from ignorance.

No matter the cause, no one need spend his or her life consistently making the same mistakes over and over. I really wish everyone would band together to stop the confusion. Could we maybe send everyone back to junior high English class?

Probably not.
So, instead, I offer this wee tutorial.

Let’s start by explaining homonyms, homophones, heteronyms, and homographs. They’re all related, but each one is a little different from another. Think of homonyms as the top of a ladder above homophones, heteronyms, and homographs. Sort of like this:

Homonyms

Homophones

Homographs

Heteronyms

Now let’s take a look at the differences among these terms. Homonyms are words that sound alike but have different meanings. Homophones are words that sound alike and are spelled alike but have different meanings. Some words are both homonyms and homophones; homophones are a type of homonym. Homographs are words that are spelled the same but have different meanings. Heteronyms are words that are spelled the same, have different meanings, and sound different. Heteronyms are a type of homograph.

Confusing? TMI? Let’s look at some examples:

  • Homonyms
    • ad/add—ad = an advertisement [noun]. add = as in to compute figures [verb]; as in to to join one thing to another in order to increase number [verb]
    • led/lead/lead—led = the past-tense form of the verb to lead [verb]. lead = to command or be in charge of [verb]. lead = a heavy metal (i.e., plumbum), as in Professor Plum killed Miss Scarlet in the kitchen with the lead pipe [noun]
  • Homophones
    • bank—a place where you put your money [noun]; an area of sloping land near a body of water [noun]; counting on or betting on something  [verb]; tilting when turning [verb]; etc.
    • beam—a sturdy piece of wood or metal used to support a ceiling or roof [noun]; a ray of sunshine [noun]; to transmit a signal [verb]; to smile brightly [verb];
  • Homographs
    • bow—the fore of a vessel [noun]; ribbon, string, etc., tied in loops [noun]; to bend at the waist [verb]
    • incense—that smelly stuff that you burn to obscure the scent of pot [noun]; to infuriate [verb])
  • Heteronyms
    • extract—as in vanilla extract [noun]; as in a piece of a larger work [noun]; as in to remove with effort [verb]
    • invalid—an individual who is weak or disabled [noun]; no longer valid [adjective]

The examples above illustrate just  some of the more common words that are often goofed-up. But there are lots more. Here’s a Top 10 list of those I see most frequently (listed alphabetically):

  • accept/except—accept = to agree to receive or do [verb]. except = to exclude [verb]; as in other than or not including [preposition]; as in but for [conjuction]
  • affect/effect—affect = to alter someone or something in some way [verb]; to take on airs [verb]; to evoke emotions [verb]. effect = to cause something to happen [verb]; personal belongings [noun]; lighting, sound, scenery, CGI, etc., used in a production [noun]
  • assure/ensure/insure—assure = to dispel doubt [verb]. ensure = to make sure something does or does not happen [verb]. insure = to arrange for compensation for a loss [verb]
  • a while/awhile—a while = a period of time [noun]. awhile = for a period of time [adverb]
  • discreet/discrete—discreet = careful, circumspect, cautious [adjective]. discrete = separate and distinct [adjective]
  • foreword/forward—foreword = a short introduction to a book [noun]. forward = toward the front [adverb]; a direction in which to move [adjective]; a sports position [noun]; to send correspondence to another person [verb]
  • poor/pore/pour—poor = lacking sufficient resources [adjective]; worse than desired, expected, or usual [adjective]; pore = a small opening [noun]; to study something closely (as in to pore over) [verb]. pour = to flow or cause to flow [verb]
  • principal/principle—principal = first in order of importance [adjective]; the person with the highest authority [noun]; a sum of money invested [noun]. principle = a belief, truth, or value [noun]; a mathematical or scientific theorem [noun]
  • sight/site—sight = the faculty of seeing [noun]; an area, distance, or spot within which someone or something can be seen [noun]. site = an area upon which something is built or constructed [noun]; the location of a event [noun]; to fix something in a particular place [verb]
  • tenet/tenant—tenet = a rule, guideline, principle, or belief [noun]. tenant = a resident of a parcel of land, a building, or other property [noun]

I don’t think its really to much two expect written work too be free of grammatical errors. (See what I did their?) (and there?) Indeed, the internet is full of resources* to help you understand homonyms, homophones, heteronyms, and homographs and use them correctly. Words matter. Four accuracy, fore clarity of meaning, for precision, for understanding. Clean and correct writing will make a difference for you’re readers (and four you’re editors). So—pleads oh pleads—take the thyme too brush-up on your understanding and use of these commonly confused words.

From the bottom of my heart, I thank you and your readers thank you.

—Kelli
March 30, 2018

*Some sites to check out (not checkout):

Anarchy is as detestable in grammar as it is in society.
—Maurice Druon
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“SHOULD I KEEP WRITING?”

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It’s an interesting question, that: “Should I keep writing?”

Asked of me recently, I found there’s no easy answer. Primarily because that’s a pretty loaded question. There’s a lot behind it.

“Is my writing worthwhile?”
“Is my writing any good?”
“Is my writing publishable?”

To find an answer to that question, more questions must be asked.

“Why are you writing?”
“What do you hope to accomplish with your writing?”
“Who are you writing for?”

It’s important to note that writing and publishing are two different things. The old adage that you should write for yourself, the trope that you should write the book you want to read—those are both true. Each is a good impetus, a solid reason for writing. Most of us write because we believe we have something to say. We hope that others will find what we have to say equally compelling.

When we’re publishing our work, however, the focus shifts from ourselves to our readers. That’s because manuscripts are for writers while books are for readers. Publishers want to publish good writing, of course. That’s a given. But publishers are in the business of publishing books that will sell—i.e., books that readers will buy.

That’s not to say that you should approach a writing project solely with sales figures and dollar signs in mind (unless, perhaps, you’re a freelance writer or otherwise a writer for hire, which is awholenother ball o’ wax). You might keep those numbers in the back of your head—way far back in the recesses of your mind—but they shouldn’t necessarily be your primary focus. Because before you can ever get to the point of publishing and having your book in your hand and tracking sales and refreshing Amazon every eight minutes so you can see how your book is ranking, you have to, obviously, write a good manuscript.

It’s a balancing act, no doubt. Few of us write hoping that no one will ever read our work. We writers want to be published, even if it means connecting with only a handful of readers. But I’m not sure that getting published and selling books should be any writer’s primary impetus in putting together a good manuscript. Your primary impetus should be telling a good story, saying what you need to say as best you can say it.

Should you keep writing?
Why not? If you love writing, if you feel like you have something to say, if you can find the words to put it down on paper, then by all means, keep writing.

But if your real question is “Is my writing worthwhile?” or “Is my writing publishable?” well, then, that’s something else. If you’re asking that question, you’ve moved beyond writing for yourself to wanting your work to speak to other people. If that’s really your question, then it might well be time to work with an editor or a writers group and get some feedback. Real feedback. Not praise from your spouse or your mother or your best friend. Qualitative feedback that assesses things like voice, tone, flow, structure, pacing, clarity; narrative arc, plot development, character development, and dialogue if you’re writing fiction; accessibility, authority, reliability, utility, etc., if you’re writing nonfiction.

So before you torture yourself wondering whether you should keep working on that manuscript you started during NaNoWriMo, ask yourself why you’re writing. Ask yourself what you hope to do with your writing. Ask yourself if your goal is to be published or if it’s enough for you to simply finish your manuscript. Because, ultimately, only you can decide whether you should keep writing.

—Kelli
December 1, 2017

“There are three rules for writing a novel. Unfortunately, no one knows what they are.”
—W. Somerset Maugham

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